This study investigates the flow physics on microvortex generators (MVGs) in order to improve their performance in turbulent boundary layers (TBLs). TBLs can be a challenging environment for MVGs because of the streamwise length of the generated vortex and the increased parasitic drag of the MVGs. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to properly resolve the turbulent boundary layer of a flat-plate with a zero-pressure gradient and MVG vane. Three different vane-types are investigated (e423-Mod, triangular, and rectangular vanes) and are studied in a single vane configuration. Important flow features such as a separation bubble on the leading edge of the rectangular vanes which introduced unsteadiness into the vortex formation and degraded the MVG's efficiency was observed. The e423-Mod and triangular vanes were observed to be more aerodynamically efficient. The triangular vane was found to be the most efficient when evaluated immediately downstream of the vane. However, the vortex from the triangular vane decayed very rapidly due to it being formed very close to the wall which degraded its efficiency further downstream. The e423-Mod vane avoided this problem but its drag was very high relative to the strength of the generated vortex and its vortex experienced a brief period of rapid decay immediately downstream decreasing its efficiency. Further downstream, the vortex of the rectangular vane at 16 deg became the most efficient through a combination of low vane drag and low vortex decay in the TBL, demonstrating the need to consider a range of issues when designing an MVG.