This Freeman Scholar article reviews the formulation and application of a kinetic theory for modeling the transport and dispersion of small particles in turbulent gas-flows. The theory has been developed and refined by numerous authors and now forms a rational basis for modeling complex particle laden flows. The formalism and methodology of this approach are discussed and the choice of closure of the kinetic equations involved ensures realizability and well posedness with exact closure for Gaussian carrier flow fields. The historical development is presented and how single-particle kinetic equations resolve the problem of closure of the transport equations for particle mass, momentum, and kinetic energy/stress (the so-called continuum equations) and the treatment of the dispersed phase as a fluid. The mass fluxes associated with the turbulent aerodynamic driving forces and interfacial stresses are shown to be both dispersive and convective in inhomogeneous turbulence with implications for the build-up of particles concentration in near wall turbulent boundary layers and particle pair concentration at small separation. It is shown how this approach deals with the natural wall boundary conditions for a flowing particle suspension and examples are given of partially absorbing surfaces with particle scattering and gravitational settling; how this approach has revealed the existence of contra gradient diffusion in a developing shear flow and the influence of the turbulence on gravitational settling (the Maxey effect). Particular consideration is given to the general problem of particle transport and deposition in turbulent boundary layers including particle resuspension. Finally, the application of a particle pair formulation for both monodisperse and bidisperse particle flows is reviewed where the differences between the two are compared through the influence of collisions on the particle continuum equations and the particle collision kernel for the clustering of particles and the degree of random uncorrelated motion (RUM) at the small scales of the turbulence. The inclusion of bidisperse particle suspensions implies the application to polydisperse flows and the evolution of particle size distribution.