Experience in the petroleum industry shows there are other factors besides tensile, creep, and stress rupture to consider in the use of austenitic steels in high-temperature service. There is no advantage in using stabilized grades in many applications. A spheroidizing heat-treatment is generally effective where stabilized steel is required. The coefficient of expansion and the thermal conductivity have been important factors in thermal-shock and thermal-fatigue failures in austenitic steels.

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