A static model for predicting the input-output characteristics of direct and transverse impact modulators is presented. The model is based on the position and shape of the dividing streamsurface between the impacting jets. The streamsurface permits the separation and identification of the individual flow processes within the devices. Empirical relations are developed for each of the flow processes and combined to formulate the static model. Input-output characteristics calculated from the model are generally within 25 percent of measured characteristics. The pressure gain predicted by the model is shown to be highly sensitive to jet spreading characteristics and nozzle spacing.

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