A production common rail-type injector has been investigated via numerical simulation and experimentation. The functioning principle of the injector has been carefully analyzed so as to obtain a mathematical model of the device. A zero-dimensional approach has been used for modeling the injector, thus considering the variables as function of time only. The analysis of the hydraulic part of the injector resulted in the definition of an equivalent hydraulic scheme, on which basis both the equations of continuity in chambers and flow through nozzles were written. The connecting pipe between common rail and injector, as well as the injector internal line, were modeled according to a one-dimensional approach. The moving mechanical components of the injector, such as needle, pressure rod, and control valve have been modeled using the mass-spring-damper scheme, thus obtaining the equation governing their motion. An electromagnetic model of the control valve solenoid has also been realized, in order to work out the attraction force on the anchor, generated by the electric current when flowing into its coil. The model obtained has been implemented using the MATLAB® toolbox SIMULINK®; the ordinary differential equations were solved by means of an implicit scheme of the second-order accuracy, suitable for problems with high level of stiffness, while the partial differential equations were integrated using the finite-difference Lax-Friedrichs method. The experimental investigation on the common-rail injection system was performed on a test bench at some standard test conditions. Electric current flowing through the injector coil, oil pressure in the common rail and at the injector inlet, injection rate, needle lift, and control valve lift were gauged and recorded during several injection phases. The mean reflux-flow rate and the mean quantity of fuel injected per stroke were also measured. Temperature and pressure of the feeding oil as well as pressure in the rail were continuously controlled during the experimental test. The numerical and experimental results were compared. Afterwards, the model was used to investigate the effect of control volume feeding and discharge holes and of their inlet fillet, as well as the effect of the control volume capacity, on the injector performance.
Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation of a Common Rail-Type Diesel Injector
Contributed by the Internal Combustion Engine Division of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS for publication in the ASME JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING FOR GAS TURBINES AND POWER. Manuscript received by the ICE Division, October 15, 2002; final revision received September 1, 2003. Associate Editor: D. Assanis.
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Coppo, M., Dongiovanni, C., and Negri, C. (November 24, 2004). "Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation of a Common Rail-Type Diesel Injector ." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. October 2004; 126(4): 874–885. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1787502
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