Abstract

The fatigue life behavior and internal surface conditions of inherently damped additive manufactured (AM) specimens subjected to vibration bending are under investigation. This study supports research that demonstrated 95% vibration suppression due to damping capability of AM components with 1–3% internal volume of unfused powder; however, the viability of fatigue performance is unknown. The following effort explores whether internal wall damage caused by unfused powder particle motion debits fatigue life. Comparisons between the fatigue behaviors of unfused powder pocket and fully fused nickel based alloy 718 specimens confirms a long suspected powder interaction phenomena critical to damping performance.

References

1.
Engine Structural Integrity Program (ENSIP)
,
2002
,
Military Handbook: MIL HDBK-1783B
,
United States Air Force
, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH.
2.
Nicholas
,
T.
,
2006
,
High Cycle Fatigue: A Mechanics of Materials Perspective
,
Elsevier
,
Oxford, UK
.
3.
Danforth
,
C.
,
1975
, “
Blade Vibration - Some Key Elements in Design Verification
,”
AIAA J. Aircr.
,
12
(
4
), pp.
333
342
.10.2514/3.44452
4.
Nashif
,
A. D.
,
Jones
,
D.
, and
Henderson
,
J. P.
,
1985
,
Vibration Damping
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
5.
Torvik
,
P. J.
,
Patsias
,
S.
, and
Tomlinson
,
G. R.
,
2002
, “
Characterizing the Damping Behaviour of Hard Coatings: A Comparison From Two Methodologies
,”
Proceedings of the Seventh National Turbine Engine High Cycle Fatigue Conference
, May,
West Palm Beach, FL
.
6.
Olson
,
S.
,
2003
, “
An Analytical Particle Damping Model
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
264
(
5
), pp.
1155
1166
.10.1016/S0022-460X(02)01388-3
7.
Lopez
,
I.
,
Busturia
,
J.
, and
Nijmeijer
,
H.
,
2004
, “
Energy Dissipation of a Friction Damper
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
278
(
3
), pp.
539
561
.10.1016/j.jsv.2003.10.051
8.
Jones
,
D.
, and
Parin
,
M.
,
1972
, “
Technique for Measuring Damping Properties of Thin Viscoelastic Layers
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
24
(
2
), pp.
201
210
.10.1016/0022-460X(72)90949-2
9.
Panossian
,
H.
,
1992
, “
Structural Damping Enhancement Via Non-Obstructive Particle Damping Technique
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
114
(
1
), pp.
101
105
.10.1115/1.2930221
10.
Torvik
,
P.
,
2010
, “
Damping Properties of Hard Coatings for Engine Applications
,”
Adv. Sci. Technol.
,
66
, pp.
126
135
.10.4028/www.scientific.net/AST.66.126
11.
Reed
,
S.
,
2007
, “
Development of Experimental, Analytical, and Computational Techniques Appropriate for Nonlinear Damping Coatings
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Air Force Institute of Technology
,
Wright-Patterson AFB, OH
.https://www.proquest.com/openview/3a22fa8baa141324351813f34702abbe/1?pqorigsite=gscholar&cbl=18750
12.
Torvik
,
P. J.
,
2011
, “
On Estimating System Damping From Frequency Response Bandwidths
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
330
(
25
), pp.
6088
6097
.10.1016/j.jsv.2011.06.027
13.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Langley
,
B.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
, and
Justice
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Comparison Between Forced-Response and Hysteretic Energy Damping Assessment Methods
,”
AIAA Science and Technology Forum and Exposition
,
San Diego, CA
, Jan.
4
8
.10.2514/6.2016-0666
14.
Torvik
,
P.
, and
Langley
,
B.
,
2015
, “
Material Properties of Hard Coatings Developed for High Damping
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2015-4195.10.2514/6.2015-4195
15.
Torvik
,
P.
,
Wilson
,
R.
, and
Hansel
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Influence of a Viscoelastic Surface Infiltrate on the Damping Properties of Plasma Spray Alumina Coatings, Part I: Room Temperature
,”
Proceedings of the Materials Science and Technology Conference and Exhibition
,
Detroit, MI
, Sept. 16–20, pp.
139
150
.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293089065_Influence_of_a_viscoelastic_surface_infiltrate_on_the_damping_properties_of_plasma_sprayed_alumina_coati
16.
Els
,
D.
,
2011
, “
Damping of Rotating Beams With Particle Dampers: Experimental Analysis
,”
AIAA J.
,
49
(
10
), pp.
2228
2238
.10.2514/1.J050984
17.
Sinha
,
A.
, and
Griffin
,
J.
,
1983
, “
Friction Damping of Flutter in Gas Turbine Engine Airfoils
,”
AIAA J. Aircr.
,
20
(
4
), pp.
372
376
.10.2514/3.44878
18.
Nashif
,
A.
,
Torvik
,
P.
,
Desai
,
U.
,
Hansel
,
J.
, and
Henderson
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Increasing Gas Turbine Blade Damping Through Cavities Filled With Viscoelastic Materials
,”
AIAA J. Propul. Power
,
24
(
4
), pp.
741
750
.10.2514/1.35285
19.
Ramesh
,
T.
, and
Ganesan
,
N.
,
1995
, “
Vibration and Damping Analysis of Cylindrical Shells With Constrained Damping Treatment—A Comparison of Three Theories
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
117
(
2
), pp.
213
219
.10.1115/1.2873911
20.
Wu
,
C.
,
Liao
,
W.
, and
Wang
,
M.
,
2004
, “
Modeling of Granular Particle Damping Using Multiphase Flow Theory of Gas-Particles
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
126
(
2
), pp.
196
201
.10.1115/1.1688763
21.
Petrov
,
E.
,
Zachariadis
,
Z.-I.
,
Beretta
,
A.
, and
Elliott
,
R.
,
2013
, “
A Study of Nonlinear Vibrations in a Frictionally Damped Turbine Bladed Disk With Comprehensive Modeling of Aerodynamic Effects
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
135
(
3
), p.
032504
.10.1115/1.4007871
22.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
Langley
,
B.
,
Sheridan
,
L.
,
O'Hara
,
R.
,
Johnson
,
P.
, and
Beck
,
J.
,
2018
, “
Investigating Damping Performance of Laser Powder Bed Fused Components With Unique Internal Structures
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2018-75977.10.1115/GT2018-75977
23.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
,
Langley
,
B.
,
Sheridan
,
L.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
O'Hara
,
R.
,
Johnson
,
P.
, et al., “
Forced-Response Verification of Unique Additive Manufactured Vibration Suppressed Specimens
,”
Mechanics of Additive and Advanced Manufacturing
,
S.
Kramer
ed., Vol. 8,
Springer
,
Cham
, pp.
81
86
.10.1007/978-3-319-95083-9_15
24.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
, and
O'Hara
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Strain Dependence of Inherent Damping in 3D Printed Inconel 718
,”
Vibration Institute Annual Training Conference
,
New Orleans, LA
, July 17–20.
25.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
,
Beck
,
J.
,
Sheridan
,
L.
,
Holycross
,
C.
, and
O'Hara
,
R.
,
2019
, “
Inherent Damping Sustainability Study on Additively Manufactured Nickel-Based Alloys for Critical Parts
,”
AIAA J.
,
57
(
1
), pp.
456
461
.10.2514/1.J057608
26.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Runyon
,
B.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
Sheridan
,
L.
, and
O'Hara
,
R.
,
2019
, “
Assessing Manufacturing Repeatability of Inherently Damped Nickel Alloy Components Via Forced Response Testing
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2019-90945.10.1115/GT2019-90945
27.
George
,
T.
,
Seidt
,
J.
,
Shen
,
M. H. H.
,
Cross
,
C.
, and
Nicholas
,
T.
,
2004
, “
Development of a Novel Vibration-Based Fatigue Testing Methodology
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
26
(
5
), pp.
477
486
.10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2003.10.012
28.
George
,
T.
,
Shen
,
M.-H. H.
,
Cross
,
C.
, and
Nicholas
,
T.
,
2006
, “
A New Multiaxial Fatigue Testing Method for Variable Amplitude Loading and Stress Ratio
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
128
(
4
), pp.
857
864
.10.1115/1.1788687
29.
Bruns
,
J.
,
Zearley
,
A.
,
George
,
T.
,
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
, and
Holycross
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Vibration-Based Bending Fatigue of a Hybrid Insert-Plate System
,”
J. Exp. Mech.
,
55
(
6
), pp.
1067
1080
.10.1007/s11340-015-0004-6
30.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
Cross
,
C.
, et al.,
2016
, “
Improved Hybrid Specimen for Vibration Bending Fatigue
,”
Fatigue, Fracture, Failure and Damage Evolution
,
A.
Zehnder,
ed., Vol. 8,
Springer
, New York, pp.
21
30
.
31.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Henry
,
E.
,
Holycross
,
C.
, and
Brown
,
J.
,
2017
, “
As-Built Geometry and Surface Finish Effects on Fatigue and Tensile Properties of Laser Fused Titanium 6Al-4V
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2017-63482.10.1115/GT2017-63482
32.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
George
,
T.
,
Sheridan
,
L.
,
Carper
,
E.
, and
Beck
,
J.
,
2019
, “
Investigating Discrepancies in Bending Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured Titanium 6Al-4V
,”
ASME J. Eng. Mater. Technol.
,
141
(
4
), p.
041002
.10.1115/1.4042955
33.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Schwartz
,
J.
,
George
,
T.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
Cross
,
C.
, and
Slater
,
J.
,
2015
, “
Bending Fatigue Life Characterization of Direct Metal Laser Sintering Nickel Alloy 718
,”
Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct.
,
38
(
9
), pp.
1105
1117
.10.1111/ffe.12286
34.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
George
,
T.
,
Knapp
,
K.
, and
Beck
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Fatigue and Strength Studies of Titanium 6Al-4V Fabricated by Direct Metal Laser Sintering
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
138
(
2
), p.
022101
.10.1115/1.4031271
35.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Holycross
,
C.
,
George
,
T.
,
Beck
,
J.
,
Schwartz
,
J.
,
Shen
,
M.-H. H.
, and
Slater
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Material Property Determination of Vibration Fatigued DMLS and Cold-Rolled Nickel Alloys
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2014-26247.10.1115/GT2014-26247
36.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
Shen
,
M.-H. H.
,
George
,
T.
, and
Cross
,
C.
,
2008
, “
An Energy-Based Uniaxial Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Commonly Used Gas Turbine Engine Materials
,”
ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power
,
130
(
6
), p.
062504
.10.1115/1.2943152
37.
Bruns
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Structures Subject to Vibratory Stresses
,”
Society of Experimental Mechanics Annual Conference
,
Greenville, SC
, June 2–6.
38.
Maxwell
,
D. C.
, and
Nicholas
,
T.
,
1998
, “
A Rapid Method for Generation of a Haigh Diagram for High Cycle Fatigue
,” STP1332-EB Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics: 29th Volume,
T.
Panontin
, and
S.
Sheppard
, eds.,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
, pp.
626
641
.10.1520/STP14974S
39.
Bellows
,
R.
,
Muju
,
S.
, and
Nicholas
,
T.
,
1999
, “
Validation of the Step Test Method for Generating Haigh Diagrams for Ti-6Al-4V
,”
Int. J. Fatigue
,
21
(
7
), pp.
687
697
.10.1016/S0142-1123(99)00032-8
40.
Scott-Emuakpor
,
O.
,
George
,
T.
,
Cross
,
C.
,
Wertz
,
J.
, and
Shen
,
M.-H. H.
,
2012
, “
A New Distortion Energy-Based Equivalent Stress for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction
,”
Int. J. Non-Linear Mech.
,
47
(
3
), pp.
29
37
.10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2011.12.002
41.
Special Metals Corporation
,
2007
, “
Inconel Alloy 718
,” New Hartford, NY, Standard No. SMC-045.
42.
American Society for Testing and Materials
,
2010
,
E756 - 05: Standard Test Method for Measuring Vibration-Damping Properties of Materials
, ASTM Book of Standards, Vol.
04.06
,
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
.
43.
Inman
,
D.
,
2000
,
Engineering Vibration
,
Prentice Hall
, Upper Saddle River,
NJ
.
44.
Meirovitch
,
L.
,
1997
,
Principles and Techniques of Vibrations
,
Prentice Hall
, Hoboken,
NJ
.
45.
Tammas-Williams
,
S.
,
Zhao
,
H.
,
Leonard
,
F.
,
Derguti
,
F.
,
Todd
,
I.
, and
Prangnell
,
P.
,
2015
, “
XCT Analysis of the Influence of Melt Strategies on Defect Population in Ti-6Al-4V Components Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting
,”
Mater. Charact.
,
102
, pp.
47
61
.10.1016/j.matchar.2015.02.008
46.
Yeung
,
H.
,
Lane
,
B.
,
Fox
,
J.
,
Kim
,
F.
,
Heigel
,
J.
, and
Neira
,
J.
,
2017
, “
Continuous Laser Scan Strategy for Faster Build Speeds in Laser Powder Bed Fusion System
,”
28th Annual International Solid Freefrom Fabrication Symposium
,
Austin, TX
, Aug. 7–9.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321729092_Continuous_laser_scan_strategy_for_faster_build_speeds_in_laser_powder_bed_fusion_system
47.
Hagedorn-Hansen
,
D.
,
Bezuidenhout
,
M.
,
Dimitrov
,
D.
, and
Oosthuizen
,
G.
,
2017
, “
The Effects on Selective Laser Melting Scan Strategies on Deviation of Hybrid Parts
,”
South Afr. J. Ind. Eng.
,
28
(
3
), pp.
200
212
.10.7166/28-3-1862
You do not currently have access to this content.