Abstract

The aerodynamic and aeroelastic behavior of an engine-like transonic compressor stage is investigated in this paper. Simulations were carried out for the transonic compressor at the Technical University of Darmstadt using the AU3D flow solver. A comparison with previous experimental investigations shows close agreement for both steady and transient data. The simulations enable a detailed flow analysis during spike stall inception and nonsynchronous vibrations (NSV) at operating points close to the stall limit. The aerodynamic structure of shear layer fluctuations in the rotor tip region during the initial phase of spike stall inception is investigated. Already before the stall limit is reached, such fluctuations can occur. In this case, the compressor continues to operate on the aerodynamically stable characteristic and NSV might be excited due to the unsteady blade force. This paper concludes with a joint analytical interpretation of the shear layer fluctuations observed at the beginning of spike stall and during near stall NSV by basic flow principles.

References

1.
Day
,
I. J.
,
2016
, “
Stall, Surge, and 75 Years of Research
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
1
), p.
011001
.10.1115/1.4031473
2.
Hoeger
,
M.
,
Fritsch
,
G.
, and
Bauer
,
D.
,
1999
, “
Numerical Simulation of the Shock-Tip Leakage Vortex Interaction in a HPC Front Stage
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
121
(
3
), pp.
456
468
.10.1115/1.2841338
3.
Vo
,
H. D.
,
Tan
,
C. S.
, and
Greitzer
,
E. M.
,
2008
, “
Criteria for Spike Initiated Rotating Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
130
(
1
), p.
011023
.10.1115/1.2750674
4.
Inoue
,
M.
,
Kuroumaru
,
M.
,
Tanino
,
T.
, and
Furukawa
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Propagation of Multiple Short-Length-Scale Stall Cells in an Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
122
(
1
), pp.
45
54
.10.1115/1.555426
5.
Pullan
,
G.
,
Young
,
A. M.
,
Day
,
I. J.
,
Greitzer
,
E. M.
, and
Spakovszky
,
Z. S.
,
2015
, “
Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
137
(
5
), p.
051007
.10.1115/1.4028494
6.
Yamada
,
K.
,
Kikuta
,
H.
,
Iwakiri
,
K.
,
Furukawa
,
M.
, and
Gunjishima
,
S.
,
2013
, “
An Explanation for Flow Features of Spike-Type Stall Inception in an Axial Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
135
(
2
), p.
021023
.10.1115/1.4007570
7.
Brandstetter
,
C.
,
Jüngst
,
M.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2018
, “
Measurements of Radial Vortices, Spill Forward and Vortex Breakdown in a Transonic Compressor
,”
ASEM J. Turbomach.
,
140
(
6
), p.
061004
.10.1115/1.4039053
8.
Baumgartner
,
M.
,
Kameier
,
F.
, and
Hourmouziadis
,
J.
,
1995
, “
Non-Engine Order Blade Vibration in a High Pressure Compressor
,”
Proceedings of the ISABE
Melbourne, Australia
, Sept. 10–15, Paper No. ISABE-1995-7094.
9.
Hah
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Effects of Double-Leakage Tip Clearance Flow on the Performance of a Compressor Stage With Large Rotor Tip Gap
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2016-56050
.10.1115/GT2016-56050
10.
Hah
,
C.
,
Bergner
,
J.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2008
, “
Tip Clearance Vortex Oscillation, Vortex Shedding and Rotating Instabilities in an Axial Transonic Compressor Rotor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2008-50105.10.1115/GT2008-50105
11.
Kameier
,
F.
, and
Neise
,
W.
,
1997
, “
Rotating Blade Flow Instability as a Source of Noise in Axial Turbomachines
,”
J. Sound Vib.
,
203
(
5
), pp.
833
853
.10.1006/jsvi.1997.0902
12.
Kielb
,
R. E.
,
Barter
,
J. W.
,
Thomas
,
J. P.
, and
Hall
,
K. C.
,
2003
, “
Blade Excitation by Aerodynamic Instabilities- A Compressor Blade Study
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2003-38634
10.1115/GT2003-38634.
13.
Mailach
,
R.
,
Lehmann
,
I.
, and
Vogeler
,
K.
,
2001
, “
Rotating Instabilities in an Axial Compressor Originating From the Fluctuating Blade Tip Vortex
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
123
(
3
), pp.
453
460
.10.1115/1.1370160
14.
MäRz
,
J.
,
Hah
,
C.
, and
Neise
,
W.
,
2002
, “
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation Into the Mechanism of Rotating Instability
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
124
(
3
), pp.
367
374
.10.1115/1.1460915
15.
Pampreen
,
R. C.
,
1993
,
Compressor Surge and Stall
, 1st ed.,
Concepts ETI
,
Norwich, VA
.
16.
Thomassin
,
J.
,
Vo
,
H. D.
, and
Mureithi
,
N. W.
,
2011
, “
The Tip Clearance Flow Resonance Behind Axial Compressor Nonsynchronous Vibration
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041030
.10.1115/1.4001368
17.
Vo
,
H. D.
,
2006
, “
Role of Tip Clearance Flow in the Generation of Non-Synchronous Vibrations
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 2006-629.10.2514/6.2006-629
18.
Holzinger
,
F.
,
Wartzek
,
F.
,
Jüngst
,
M.
,
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
, and
Leichtfuss
,
S.
,
2016
, “
Self-Excited Blade Vibration Experimentally Investigated in Transonic Compressors: Rotating Instabilities and Flutter
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
4
), p.
041006
.10.1115/1.4032163
19.
Holzinger
,
F.
,
2018
, “
Coupling of Tip Leakage Flow and Blade Vibration in Transonic Compressors—Mechanism and Countermeasures
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Technical University of Darmstadt
,
Shaker-Verlag, Aachen, Germany
.
20.
Möller
,
D.
,
Jüngst
,
M.
,
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
Giersch
,
T.
, and
Heinichen
,
F.
,
2018
, “
Influence of Rotor Tip Blockage on Near Stall Blade Vibrations in an Axial Compressor Rig
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
140
(
2
), p.
021007
.10.1115/1.4038316
21.
Schulze
,
G.
,
Blaha
,
C.
,
Hennecke
,
D. K.
, and
Henne
,
J. M.
,
1995
, “
The Performance of a New Axial Single Stage Transonic Compressor
,”
Proceedings of the ISABE
,
Melbourne, Australia
, Sept. 10–15, Paper No. ISABE-1995-7072.
22.
Biela
,
C.
,
Brandstetter
,
C.
,
Holzinger
,
F.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2011
, “
Influence of Inlet Guide Vane Wakes on Performance and Stability of a Transonic Compressor
,”
Proceedings of the ISABE
,
Gothenburg, Sweden
, Sept. 12–16, Paper No. ISABE-20111209.
23.
Brandstetter
,
C.
,
Kegalj
,
M.
,
Biela
,
C.
, and
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
,
2011
, “
PIV-Measurements in a Transonic Compressor Test Rig With Variable Inlet Guide Vanes
,”
Proceedings of the ISABE
,
Gothenburg, Sweden
, Sept. 12–16, Paper No. ISABE-2011-1222.
24.
Sayma
,
A. I.
,
Vahdati
,
M.
, and
Imregun
,
M.
,
2000
, “
An Integrated Nonlinear Approach for Turbomachinery Forced Response Prediction. Part I: Formulation
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
87
101
.10.1006/jfls.1999.0253
25.
Vahdati
,
M.
,
Sayma
,
A. I.
, and
Imregun
,
M.
,
2000
, “
An Integrated Nonlinear Approach for Turbomachinery Forced Response Prediction. Part II: Case Studies
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
14
(
1
), pp.
103
125
.10.1006/jfls.1999.0254
26.
Spalart
,
P. R.
, and
Allmaras
,
S. R.
,
1992
, “
A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows
,”
AIAA
Paper No. 92-0439.10.2514/6.1992-0439
27.
Riemann
,
B.
,
1860
, “
Über die Fortpflanzung ebener Luftwellen von endlicher Schwingungsweite
,” Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, 8, Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Göttingen, Germany.
28.
Sbardella
,
L.
,
Sayma
,
A. I.
, and
Imregun
,
M.
,
2000
, “
Semi-Structured Meshes for Axial Turbomachinery Blades
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
32
(
5
), pp.
569
584
.10.1002/(SICI)1097-0363(20000315)32:5<569::AID-FLD975>3.0.CO;2-V
29.
Lieblein
,
S.
,
Schwenk
,
F. C.
, and
Broderick
,
R. L.
,
1953
, “
Diffusion Factor for Estimating Losses and Limiting Blade Loadings in Axial Flow Compressor Blade Elements
,” NACA, Report No. RM E35D01.
30.
Gallimore
,
S. J.
,
1986
, “
Spanwise Mixing in Multistage Axial Flow Compressors: Part II—Throughflow Calculations Including Mixing
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
108
(
1
), pp.
10
16
.10.1115/1.3262009
31.
Hickman
,
A. R.
, and
Morris
,
S. C.
,
2017
, “
Characteristics of Stable Rotating Stall Cells in an Axial Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2017-64901.10.1115/GT2017-64901
32.
Hunt
,
J. C. R.
,
Wray
,
A. A.
, and
Moin
,
P.
,
1988
, “
Eddies, Streams, and Convergence Zones in Turbulent Flows
,”
Proceedings of the Summer Program,
Center for Turbulence Research
,
Stanford, CA
, pp.
193
208
. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234550074_Eddies_streams_and_convergence_zones_in_turbulent_flows
33.
Eck
,
M.
,
Geist
,
S.
, and
Peitsch
,
D.
,
2017
, “
Physics of Prestall Propagating Disturbances in Axial Compressors and Their Potential as a Stall Warning Indicator
,”
Appl. Sci.
,
7
(
3
), p.
285
.10.3390/app7030285
34.
Möller
,
D.
,
2019
, “
Zum aerodynamischen und aeroelastischen Verhalten des Axialverdichters an der Stallgrenze
,” Ph.D. thesis,
Technical University of Darmstadt
,
Shaker-Verlag, Aachen, Germany
.
35.
Michalke
,
A.
,
1965
, “
On Spatially Growing Disturbances in an Inviscid Shear Layer
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
23
(
03
), pp.
521
544
.10.1017/S0022112065001520
36.
Bousquet
,
J.
,
Binder
,
N.
,
Dufour
,
G.
,
Carbonneau
,
X.
,
Trebinjac
,
I.
, and
Roumeas
,
M.
,
2016
, “
Numerical Investigation of Kelvin-Helmholtz-Instability in a Centrifugal Compressor Operating Near Stall
,”
ASME J. Turbomach.
,
138
(
7
), p.
071007
.10.1115/1.4032457
37.
Franke
,
D.
,
Jüngst
,
M.
,
Möller
,
D.
,
Schiffer
,
H.-P.
, and
Giersch
,
T.
,
2020
, “
Influence of Pre-Swirl, Rotor Speed and Blade Count on Aeroelastic Coupling Mechanisms During Stall Inception of a Transonic Compressor
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2020-15255. 10.1115/GT2020-15255
You do not currently have access to this content.