The unsteady behavior of the shock wave was studied in an oscillating transonic compressor cascade. The experimental measurement and corresponding numerical simulation were conducted on the cascade with different shock patterns based on influence coefficient method. The unsteady pressure distribution on blade surface was measured with fast-response pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) to capture the unsteady aerodynamic force as well as the shock wave movement. It was found that the movement of shock waves in the neighboring flow passages of the oscillating blade was almost antiphase between the two shock patterns, namely, the double shocks pattern and the merged shock pattern. It was also found that the amplitude of the unsteady pressure caused by the passage shock wave was very large under the merged shock pattern compared with the double shocks pattern. The stability of blade vibration was also analyzed for both shock patterns including three-dimensional flow effect. These findings were thought to shed light on the fundamental understanding of the unsteady aerodynamic characteristics of oscillating cascade caused by the shock wave behavior.