Two-dimensional numerical calculations are reported for natural convection of a fluid in a porous, horizontal layer heated from below. Effects of the following parameters are examined: rigid (impermeable) and constant-pressure (permeable) upper boundaries; isothermal and uniform heat flux at the lower boundary; and permeabilities which are constant, or which vary with depth to simulate compaction of a porous medium or property variations of real fluids within the medium. Steady-state results are presented for the heat flux distribution on the upper surface, as well as for flow and temperature fields in the interior.
Natural Convection in a Porous Medium: Effects of Confinement, Variable Permeability, and Thermal Boundary Conditions
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Ribando, R. J., and Torrance, K. E. (February 1, 1976). "Natural Convection in a Porous Medium: Effects of Confinement, Variable Permeability, and Thermal Boundary Conditions." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. February 1976; 98(1): 42–48. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3450467
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