Two-dimensional numerical calculations are reported for natural convection of a fluid in a porous, horizontal layer heated from below. Effects of the following parameters are examined: rigid (impermeable) and constant-pressure (permeable) upper boundaries; isothermal and uniform heat flux at the lower boundary; and permeabilities which are constant, or which vary with depth to simulate compaction of a porous medium or property variations of real fluids within the medium. Steady-state results are presented for the heat flux distribution on the upper surface, as well as for flow and temperature fields in the interior.

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