Realistic and accurate modeling of contact for problems involving large deformations and severe distortions presents a host of computational challenges. Due to their natural description of surfaces, Lagrangian finite element methods are traditionally used for problems involving sliding contact. However, problems such as those involving ballistic penetrations, blast-structure interactions, and vehicular crash dynamics, can result in elements developing large aspect ratios, twisting, or even inverting. For this reason, Eulerian, and by extension Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), methods have become popular. However, additional complexities arise when these methods permit multiple materials to occupy a single finite element.

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