The creep evolution was followed by conducting magnetic measurements on ferromagnetic steel samples exposed to different creep strains at a constant temperature. 410 stainless steel (410 SS) rods were submitted to creep at applying a constant stress of 124 MPa for different creep times. A magnetic hysteresis curve was generated for every sample. It was found that the shape of the hysteresis curves varied with creep time. The extent of creep was assessed by measuring magnetic saturation, coercivity, and remanence. The changes in microstructure due to creep are related to variations in magnetic properties, which are explained in terms of possible magnetic domain pinning. It was observed that the microstructural changes due to creep are better correlated with the coercivity of the material. In summary, it is feasible to use a magnetoelastic sensor to detect the partial level of creep in a ferromagnetic material by nondestructive examination.
Sensing Creep Evolution in 410 Stainless Steel by Magnetic Measurements
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Polar, A., Indacochea, J. E., and Wang, M. L. (September 10, 2010). "Sensing Creep Evolution in 410 Stainless Steel by Magnetic Measurements." ASME. J. Eng. Mater. Technol. October 2010; 132(4): 041004. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4000304
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