This paper describes the design of shape memory alloy force and displacement actuators based upon the thermomechanical constitutive relations previously developed by the authors. Numerical simulations and design case studies are presented which show the utility and advantages of this method over design methods currently being used. The types of actuators described and analyzed include bias spring actuators, differential force actuators, and their hybrid systems. The design approach includes coupling between the one-dimensional thermomechanical constitutive relations and a lumped capacitance transient thermal analysis. The design approach described herein will provide a practical and convenient method for use in the design of shape memory alloy actuators.

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