The uniaxial Bauschinger effect has been evaluated in several high strength steels being considered for armament application. The steels investigated include ASTM A723 (1130 and 1330 MPa), PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel (1380 MPa), PH 13-8 Mo super tough stainless steel (1355 MPa), and HY 180 (1180MPa). Tests were conducted at plastic strains up to 3.5%. Results of testing show a progressive decrease in Bauschinger effect up to plastic strains of approximately 1% (for all materials investigated), after which there is little further decrease in the Bauschinger effect. Several key features were discovered during testing. First, all of the materials tested exhibited a changing modulus, where the elastic modulus on unloading after tensile plastic straining is consistently lower than that observed in the original loading of the specimens. The amount of modulus reduction is dependent upon the material tested, and larger reductions are observed with increasing amounts of tensile plastic strain. Prior work by Milligan reported Bauschinger effect factor β for a modified 4340 steel (old vintage A723 steel), which compares well with the present work. However, his results failed to mention any observations about a modulus reduction. The second observation was the expected strength reduction where a reduced compressive strength is observed as a result of prior tensile plastic straining. Numerical curve fits used to calculate residual stresses, which take into account both the modulus reduction and strength reduction are presented for all materials. Fatigue life calculations, utilizing the numerical curve fits, show good agreement with full size A723 laboratory fatigue test results.

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