An experimental study is presented in order to determine the clamp load loss due to elastic interaction and gasket creep relaxation in bolted joints. Studied parameters include the gasket material and thickness, bolt spacing, tightening sequence, fastener grip length, and level of the fastener preload. The joint is composed of two steel flanges and a gasket made of styrene butadiene rubber or flexible graphite. The flanges are fastened together using M12x1.75 Class 10.9 fasteners. Force washers are used to monitor bolt tensions in real time. Four different gasket thicknesses of styrene butadiene rubber (1/16, 1/8, 3/16, and 1/4 in.) and two thicknesses of flexible graphite (1/16 and 1/8 in.) are considered. For the same bolt circle of the flange, the bolt spacing is varied by using a different number of bolts; spacing that corresponds to using three, five, or seven bolts is considered in this study. The effect of the tightening strategy is studied by using sequential, star, or simultaneous tightening patterns. Bolt tightening is accomplished by using either an electric digital torque wrench with various control options or by using a production-size multiple spindle fastening system that is capable of simultaneous tightening of all fasteners. Experimental data is presented and analyzed, in order to study the effect of the various parameters on the clamp load loss due to the combined effect of elastic interaction and gasket creep relaxation at room temperature.
Clamp Load Loss due to Elastic Interaction and Gasket Creep Relaxation in Bolted Joints
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Nassar, S. A., and Alkelani, A. A. (July 30, 2005). "Clamp Load Loss due to Elastic Interaction and Gasket Creep Relaxation in Bolted Joints." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. August 2006; 128(3): 394–401. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2218343
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