A one-dimensional numerical model is developed to predict the diurnal variations of vertical temperature and concentration profiles in salt-gradient solar ponds. The model employs augmented thermal and mass diffusivities due to turbulent wind mixing and double-diffusive convection. Numerical results indicate that the thickness of the surface convective layer increases with wind speed (or the wavelength of the surface wave). Double-diffusive convection is, in the absence of wind, capable of sustaining a mixed layer at the surface when strong cooling occurs over the pond. In field ponds, the surface convective layer is probably maintained as a result of the combined action of wind-generated turbulent mixing and double-diffusive convection.
Modeling of the Surface Convective Layer of Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds
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Cha, Y. S., Sha, W. T., and Schertz, W. W. (November 1, 1982). "Modeling of the Surface Convective Layer of Salt-Gradient Solar Ponds." ASME. J. Sol. Energy Eng. November 1982; 104(4): 293–298. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3266320
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