Advancement of human civilization has led to rapid industrialization going in hand with urbanization and globalization, which have elevated energy demand worldwide. Conventional energy sources with the fear of being exhausted at a rapid pace seem to fail to quench inflated energy demand alone. Solar being a ubiquitous and eco-friendly source of renewable energy has become one of the most dominant forms of power generation implemented in diverse applications. To maximize the efficacy of the solar photovoltaic (SPV) system, it must be operated at maximum power point (MPP) that incorporates the use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. MPPT algorithm is a self-automated control technique that compels the SPV system to operate at MPP thereby harnessing maximum obtainable power under time-varying environmental conditions such as solar intensity, temperature, SPV module characteristics, and module shading. This paper puts forward an elaborated study on 27 MPPT techniques that are pervasive in the SPV system. The entire assessment deals with MPPT techniques employed under uniform solar insolation varying from time to time as well as global maximum power point tracking (GMMPT) techniques employed under partial shading (PS) conditions. Vivid comparisons among all the MPPT techniques along with their brief discussion, merits, and demerits have been done. Moreover, a detailed structure of error-based incremental conductance MPPT has been proposed.