Active cooling is an effective thermal protection method for plates under high thermal loading. In this paper, characteristics of coupled heat transfer of aluminum alloy and titanium alloy plates with kerosene active cooling are studied numerically and experimentally. The effects of cooling channel spacing as well as the inlet parameters of kerosene on the maximum temperature and temperature uniformity of the plate are investigated with varied heat fluxes. Besides, the thermal resistance and flow resistance of kerosene cooling are also analyzed. The experimental results show that the 2a12-type aluminum alloy plate can be cooled to a maximum temperature of 460 K with kerosene cooling under a mass flowrate of 24.7 g/s and heat flux of 6–11 kW/m2. The numerical results show that the maximum temperature is mainly affected by the channel spacing and heat flux. Compared to the titanium alloy plate, the aluminum alloy plate is more likely to be affected by the coolant mass flowrate. In addition, the conductive thermal resistance of aluminum alloy plates is 0.0017–0.0079 m2 K/W and is 0.015–0.073 m2 K/W for titanium alloy plates. For both materials, conductive thermal resistance dominates the total thermal resistance of plates with active cooling.