Abstract

Additive manufacturing processes, such as direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), enable the creation of novel turbine cooling internal passages and systems. However, the DMLS method produces a significant and unique surface roughness. Previous work in scaled passages analyzed pressure losses and friction factors associated with the rough surfaces, as well as investigated the velocity profiles and turbulent flow characteristics within the passage. In this study, the heat transfer characteristics of scaled additively manufactured surfaces were measured using infrared (IR) thermography. Roughness panels were CNC machined from plates of aluminum 6061 to create near isothermal roughness elements when heated. Fluid resistance differences between the aluminum roughness panels and roughness panels constructed from ABS plastic using the same roughness patterns from McClain et al. (2020, “Flow in a Simulated Turbine Blade Cooling Channel With Spatially Varying Roughness Caused by Additive Manufacturing Orientation,” ASME Turbo Expo 2020, Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Virtual Conference, Sept. 21–25, GT2020-16069) were investigated. Finally, the overall thermal performance enhancements and friction losses were assessed through the calculation of surface averaged “global thermal performance” ratios. The global thermal performance characterizations indicate results in-line with those found for traditional commercial roughness and slightly below traditional internal passage convection enhancement methods such as swirl chambers, dimples, and ribs. The passages investigated in this study do not include compressibility effects or the long-wavelength artifacts and channel geometric deviations observed by Wildgoose et al. (2020, “Impact of Additive Manufacturing on Internal Cooling Channels with Varying Diameters and Build Directions,” ASME Turbo Expo 2020, Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, Virtual Conference, Sept. 21–25, GT2020-15049). However, the results of this study indicate that, based on the roughness augmentation alone, artificial convective cooling enhancers such as turbulators or dimples may still be required for additively manufactured turbine component cooling.

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