Fractal lattice is a kind of lattices with multifunctional physical characteristics and superior mechanical properties. The wave propagation of the triangular lattice with Koch fractal is calculated by the finite element method and Bloch theorem. The effects of the iteration number on the band gaps and the band edge modes are studied. The finite element software was used to simulate the dynamic response of the triangular lattice with Koch fractal for verifying the vibration suppression performance. The results show that the triangular lattice with Koch fractal can produce multiple and low-frequency band gaps. As an increase of the iteration number, the band gap gradually shifts to a lower frequency. By comparing and analyzing the band edge modes and the eigenmodes of Koch fractal, the mechanisms of the band gaps within the low-frequency ranges are analyzed and discussed in detail. Additionally, the band edge modes exhibit similar vibration modes. Finally, the simulation results of the finite lattice verify the broadband vibration suppression performance of the triangular lattice with Koch fractal. This work provides insights into the lattice dynamic behavior adjusted by Koch fractal, which is beneficial to the periodic lattice for suppressing vibration in engineering applications.